easycsv - A package to read CSV in Go (golang) easily

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easycsv

easycsv package provides API to read CSV files in Go (golang) easily.

Installation

go get -u github.com/yunabe/easycsv

Features

Links

Quick Tour

Read a CSV file to a struct

r := easycsv.NewReaderFile("testdata/sample.csv")
var entry struct {
	Name string `index:"0"`
	Age  int    `index:"1"`
}
for r.Read(&entry) {
	fmt.Print(entry)
}
if err := r.Done(); err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Failed to read a CSV file: %v", err)
}

Read a CSV file with Loop

r := easycsv.NewReaderFile("testdata/sample.csv")
err := r.Loop(func(entry *struct {
	Name string `index:"0"`
	Age  int    `index:"1"`
}) error {
	fmt.Print(entry)
	return nil
})
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Failed to read a CSV file: %v", err)
}

Usages

NewReader

The core component of easycsv is Reader. You can create a new Reader instance from io.Reader, io.ReadCloser and a file path.

The Reader created by NewReadCloser and NewReaderFile closes the file automatically when the Reader is finished. So you do not need to close files manually and you can omit error handling code for closing files.

Read

There are three methods to read CSV with easycsv.Reader. Read, Loop and ReadAll. We are looking into Read method first, which is the most basic and naive way to read CSV with Reader.

func (r *Reader) Read(e interface{}) bool

Read receives a pointer to a struct (e.g. *myStruct) or a pointer to a slice of a primitive type (e.g. *[]int). If it reads a new row from CSV successufly, it stores the row into e and returns true. If Reader reaches to EOF or it fails to read a new row for some reasons, it returns false. Read returns false for various reasons. To check the reason, you have to call Done() subsequently. Done returns an error if Read encountered an error. Done returns nil if Read returned false because it reached to EOF.

You can pass two types of pointers to Read. A pointer of a struct (e.g. *myStruct) or a pointer of a slice of primitive typs (e.g. *[]int). Passing a pointer of a struct is more convenient. When you use a struct, you need to specify how to map CSV columns to the struct’s field using struct field’s tags. Here are examples:

var entry struct {
	Name string `index:"0"`
	Age  int    `index:"1"`
}

var entry struct {
	Name string `name:"name"`
	Age  int    `name:"age"`
}

You can use index tag or name tag to specify the mapping. When index is used, Read maps index-th (0-based) column to the field. In the first example, the frist column is mapped to Name and the second column is mapped to Age. When name is used, Read uses the first line of CSV as a header with column names and maps columns to fields based on the column names in the header. In the second example, give that the content of CSV is the following,

age,name
10,Alice
20,Bob

the frist column is mapped to Age and the second column is mapped to Name. So {Alice 10} and {Bob 20} are stored to the struct respectively. You can not use both index tag and name tag in the same struct. Read reports an error in that case.

If you pass a pointer to a slice to Read, Read converts CSV row into the slice and fills it to the argument. If the argument e is invalid, Read returns false immediately and the reason of the error is reported by Done().

The conversion from CSV row (string) to the given field type (int, float32, bool, etc…) is handled in Reader automatically. If you want to customize the conversion, see Custom encoding section below.

When you read CSV with Read methods, you have to always call Done() subsequently to (1) check the error and (2) close the file behind the Reader. If you forget to call Done(), the error will be completely gone. Do not forget to call Done after Read.

Loop

func (r *Reader) Loop(body interface{}) (err error)

Loop reads CSV line by line and executes body with a line everytime it reads a line. body must be a function that receives a struct (e.g. myStruct), a pointer of a struct (e.g. *myStruct) or a slice of primitives (e.g. []int). A line of CSV is automatically converted to the argument of body when Loop reads the line and passed to body. Also, body must be a function that returns bool, error or no return value. If body is a function that returns bool, Loop stops reading CSV at the line where body returns false. If body is a function that returns error, Loop stops reading CSV when body retruns an error. Loop does not stop until it reached to the end if body has no return value. If body retuns an error, Loop quits and reports the error.

When Loop ends, it invokes Done and closes internal files automatically. So, you do not need to call Done after Loop. Loop returns the first error if it encounters errors. It returns nil if everything goes well. Do not forget to handle the error returned by Loop.

The example below shows how to use Loop with a function which returns error. This code reads CSV until Loop reaches to EOF or an entry with Age < 0 is found in the CSV.

err := r.Loop(func(entry *struct {
	Name string `index:"0"`
	Age  int    `index:"1"`
}) error {
	fmt.Println(entry)
	if Age < 0 {
		return errors.New("Age mustn't be negative")
	}
})
if err != nil {
	log.Fatalf("Failed to read a CSV file: %v", err)
}

ReadAll

func (r *Reader) ReadAll(s interface{}) (err error)

ReadAll reads a CSV input to the end and convert all rows into the slice passed as an argument. The argument s must be a pointer of a slice of a struct (*[]myStruct) or a pointer of a slice of a slice (*[][]int). Aside from that, the same rules of Read are applied to ReadAll. You need to specify how to map columns to struct fields using struct field’s tag.

Like Loop, you do not need to call Done after ReadAll. ReadAll returns the first error if it encounters errors. It returns nil if everything goes well. Do not forget to handle the error returned by ReadAll.

var entry []struct {
	Name string `index:"0"`
	Age  int    `index:"1"`
}
err := r.ReadAll(&entry);

Option

To control the behavior of Reader, you can pass Option to NewReader methods.

NewReader methods receive Option as a variadic parameter opts. opts is a variadic parameter so that we can omit opts from parameters when we call NewReader methods without changing Option. Thus, you don’t need to pass multiple Option to NewReader methods although you can pass as many Option as you want.

Comma

Like csv.Reader in the standard library, you can change the deliminator of CSV by specifying Comma option. For example, if you set '\t' to Comma, Reader reads a file as a TSV file.

Comment

Comment, if not 0, is the comment character. Lines beginning with the character without preceding whitespace are ignored.

Customizing decoders

By default, easycsv converts strings in CSV to integers, floats and bool automatically based on the types of struct fields and slices.

You can customize how to decode strings in CSV to values by specifying enc attribute to struct fields.

Predefined encoding

easycsv has three predefined custom encoding for integers.

Custom encoding

Also, you can use custom encodings in easycsv.

To use custom encodings: - Define a func that convert strings to your custom types. This func must receive a string and returns (custom-type, error). - Register the func to Option.Decoders. - Specify the registered func name with enc struct-field attribute.

r := NewReader(bytes.NewBufferString("name,birthday\nAlice,1980-12-30\nBob,1975-06-09"),
	Option{
		Decoders: map[string]interface{}{
			"date": func(s string) (time.Time, error) {
				return time.Parse("2006-01-02", s)
			},
	},
	})
var entry struct {
	Name  string    `name:"name"`
	Birth time.Time `name:"birthday" enc:"date"`
}
for r.Read(&entry) {
	fmt.Print(entry)
}
if err := r.Done(); err != nil {
	fmt.Printf("Failed: %v\n", err)
}
// Output: {Alice 1980-12-30 00:00:00 +0000 UTC}{Bob 1975-06-09 00:00:00 +0000 UTC}

Customizing decoders for types

You can also define how to convert strings into specific types in easycsv by using Option.TypeDecoders option. Option.TypeDecoders is similar to Option.Decoders. The key is reflect.Type and the value is a function to convert strings to the specific type. Reader uses the functions registered to Option.TypeDecoders instead of default converters when it converts rows in CSV into those types.

The following example shows how to define a converter for time.Time with Option.TypeDecoders.

r := NewReader(bytes.NewReader([]byte("2017-01-02,2016-02-03\n2015-03-04,2014-04-05")),
	Option{TypeDecoders: map[reflect.Type]interface{}{
		reflect.TypeOf(time.Time{}): func(s string) (time.Time, error) {
			return time.Parse("2006-01-02", s)
		},
	}})
var entry []time.Time
for r.Read(&entry) {
	for _, e := range entry {
		fmt.Print(e.Format("2006/1/2"), ";")
	}
}
if err := r.Done(); err != nil {
	fmt.Print(err)
}
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